Graphic List

This Appendix lists Ethiopia: Travels of a Youth's pictures and videos in two separate lists. The pictures are listed in the order they are in the chapters. The videos are listed by subject. In some cases I shortened the original caption to conserve space. Where a graphic does not have a caption in the original text, I have created one.

Note: This online preview lists only the thumbnail versions of these graphics. When you have the CD-ROM disk, you can click on any image to display a particular graphic in the text where it occurs.

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Pictures, Maps, and Diagrams

This section lists the pictures, maps, and diagrams in the order they occur in the book. To go directly to the pictures of a particular chapter, click on the chapter name in the following list. Otherwise, scan through the list as you will.

Cover | Contents | Introduction | Arrival | Walk in Asmara | Walk in Asmara - Kagnew to the Nyala Hotel | Walk in Asmara - City Center | Walk in Asmara - The markets and beyond | Kagnew Station | Where are we? Maps, Weather, and More | Cycling Python Valley | Asmara to Massawa by Road | Asmara to Nefasit by Road | Nefasit to Ghinda by Road | Ghinda to Massawa by Road | Debra Bizan | The Road from Nefasit to Decamere | Northern Cutoff | Asmara to Massawa by Rail | The Asmara-Massawa Tramway | Asmara to Keren | Asmara to Keren by Road | Asmara to Keren by Rail | An Archeological Triangle | Asmara to Adigrat | Matara | Adigrat to Adi Abun | Debra Damo | Alumqa's Yeha | Axum | Adowa to Asmara | Last Trip to Massawa | Leaving Ethiopia by Sea | Ethiopia's Money


Cover page


Python Valley
Table of Contents background image


Escarpment cliff east of Asmara


The Forum of Rome with the Senate house at the top right.

Dick and John stroll an ancient road in Rome.

A taxiing Ethiopian Airlines plane.

Watching the airplanes.

An Ethiopian military plane and an Ethiopian Airliner with the Lion of Judah.

Asmara terminal from the roof of the Nyala Hotel a few miles away.

A gari cart and driver looking for a fare.

One of Asmara's fancier houses.

Walk in Asmara

Route of a walk in Asmara.

Walk in Asmara - Kagnew to the Nyala Hotel

Kagnew Station's main gate.

Haile Selassie I Secondary School.

Boys on an Asmara street.

The green was red!

The red was green!

Match holder, ashtray, and cigarette box.

Menelik's story on an Ethiopian Airlines ticket envelope.

Carved gazelles.

Twenty five cents (ten cents American).

Twenty five cents (ten cents American).

Looking southwest down Queen Elizabeth II Avenue from the Nyala Hotel.

The old Fiat dealership during day and night (from 200 Pagine Sull'Eritrea, 1952).

The old Fiat dealership during day and night (from 200 Pagine Sull'Eritrea, 1952).

Flowering tree in Asmara.

Kagnew Station in the distant center left.

Saint George's church.

Ethiopian Army Second Division buildings.

Asmara northeast from the Nyala Hotel.

Asmara, north and east from the Nyala Hotel roof.

Queen Elizabeth II Avenue at night.

The edge of the Great Rift Valley east of Asmara.

Walk in Asmara - City Center

Legless in Asmara.

"You wanna ride?"

Diverse citizens of Asmara going about their business.

Diverse citizens of Asmara going about their business.

Diverse citizens of Asmara going about their business.

South Arabian writing.

South Arabian writing.

South Arabian writing.

South Arabian writing.

South Arabian writing.

South Arabian writing.

South Arabian writing.

South Arabian writing.

Haile Selassie I Avenue.

Asmara south of Haile Selassie I Avenue.

The rougher Asmara north of Haile Selassie I Avenue

A Gari cart driver.

Ma and Pa.

Muslim business men.

Umbrellas at the Cafe Royal.

A street vender we called the Spear Man.

A school girl with her lunch bowl.

Haile Selassie I Avenue.

My camera and Coca-Cola Asmara style.

Melotti beer.

Kids in front of a bookstore.

St. Joseph's Catholic cathedral.

St. Joseph's Catholic cathedral.

Looking back west up Haile Selassie I Avenue.

Walk in Asmara - The markets and beyond

The Grand Mosque.

A covered walkway in front of some stores.

The gateway to St. Mary's of Zion Church.

St. Mary's of Zion church.

St. Mary's of Zion mosaic.

The modern Abuna Teclehaimanot School.

Deep in the native market near Saint Mary's Ethiopian Catholic Church.

An injira basket walking away

St. Mary's Ethiopian Catholic Church

St. Mary's and St. Joseph's across the Bosch from northern Asmara.

My ride home.

Kagnew Station

The ASA's Kagnew Patch.

Kagnew's 1th Street.

Tract E.

Tract A.

Tract C.



TTU Hotel in Massawa.

Keren Rest Center bar.

One-time Ghinda rest center.

The back of the Tract E barracks.

Ner, Tesfai, and Girma, our houseboys.

Kagnew color.

Kagnew color.

Kagnew color.

My first Oasis Club card.

Chits--small change.

The book with the small change.

A cross section of the cars we drove.

And our license to drive.

Tract C seen across the top of the buildings of Tract E.

Tract C and it's antennas.

Mr. Tulli's apartment building--my home for six months.

HIM Haile Selassie I arriving through Kagnew's front gate.

HIM and all the appropriate dignitaries and guards in front of a barracks.

Guards even man the roof for HIM.

One dutiful guard. (Better you than me, Denis.)

We are leaving!

Even happier to leave!

Where are we? Maps, Weather, and More

Eritrea and Ethiopia in Africa

Map of Eritrea

Map of Ethiopia

Eritrea and Northern Ethiopia.

Cycling Python Valley

Python Valley.

The road dropped down and out.

The winding road.

A look back at the Dorfu Bar.

The road back up the path.

The road on down into the valley.

The railroad bridge far above.

Looking down from The railroad bridge far above.

The mountain side seemed to be billowing up like a thunder cloud.

The road was recognizable only as a cleared geometric line.

A north to south panorama into Python Valley.

A resting place.

The new narrow road.

The village of Dorfu.

And then there was a real road.

Young eucalyptus trees lined the road.

A pipe dropped water into a turbine station.

Asmara to Massawa by Road

A detailed Italian colonial map of the road from Asmara to Massawa.

Asmara to Nefasit by Road

The road between Asmara and Nefasit from above the road's 5 K marker.

Welcome to the Eritrean Highlands.

During the rainy season clouds flowed in from the Red Sea.

Tracks came in five layers here.

Road map and railway profile between upper Mai Hizni valley and Arbaroba.

Photographing a proud passerby at the Dorfu bar.

Road below Dorfu Bar.

A speeding board and a couple cows.

A woman carrying a full basket.

Morning in Arbaroba during a wetter season.

Railroad crossing road in Arbaroba.

Home site in a valley far below Arbaroba.

A donkey.

Prickly Pears loaded with beles.

The world from above Nefasit.

Nefasit to Ghinda by Road

Nefasit and Mt. Bizan from the road.

Several views of the road above Nefasit.

Sisal terraces above Nefasit.

Morning in Nefasit from the window of the train.

Road and railroad together below Nefasit.

A victim of war or of bandits?

Nefasit Valley from below

A nomadic family's homestead in the lower end of the valley.

Embatkalla valley with Ghinda in the distance.


Ghinda to Massawa by Road

Looking northeast across the Damas River flats from the ridge above Ghinda.

An unused Ghinda rest center in the late '60s.

Ghinda rest center when being used in the '50s.

Tukuls near Sabarguma.

The north end Sabarguma's "bowl."

Sabarguma water label.

Dongollo Water - Acqua Minerale Naturale da Tavola.

Adriana water.

Damas plains and mountains looking west from 79k marker.

Dogali river bridge.

Debra Bizan

Debra Bizan on the left ridge of the mountain high above Nefasit.

Debra Bizan on the distant ridge as seen from afar.

Plodding up the mountain with the road across the valley.

Looking south from the low flanks of Mt. Bizan.

Baboons chattering and eating.

Gate to Debra Bizan.

Bizan buildings.

More Bizan buildings.

Debra Bizan from the air.

The Asmara road above Nefasit on the same day.

A view south from the Debra Bizan gateway.

The Road from Nefasit to Decamere

Farms just south of Nefasit.

Road passing to the south of Nefasit as another goes straight away into a mountain valley.

Mountains south of Nefasit.

Entering a long, flat valley.

A home on a rock.

An abandoned guard house.

Looking back across the valley.

Looking farther back across the valley.

A similar view on another day with a different film.

Northern Cutoff

Leaving Asmara on the Keren road.

The parched Damas River flats from a ridge below Ghinda.

Asmara to Massawa by Rail

The third class train rounding the mountain above Python Valley.

Asmara station.


Littorina interior.

Littorina controls.

Mai Hizni Valley and beyond.

A beautiful stone bridge.

The stone bridge animated.

Early morning Dorfu (Python) Valley.

"We headed back ... below where we had been only a short time before."

Dorfu Station and its eucalyptus trees.

Tracks come in five layers here.

Littorina above Arbaroba.

Working up to Dorfu Station.

Arbaroba from far down the road.

A departing third-class train.

Morning clouds below Arbaroba.

Much the same view on a clear day.

Road and railroad routes above Nefasit.

Railroad route into Nefasit from lower down on Debra Bizan.

Camels passing through Nefasit.

Road and railroad below Nefasit.

Above Ghinda.

Ghinda station.

Lost at Ghinda Station?

Puffed wheat for sale.

Damas valley flats.

A goat in the Mai Atol station.

The desert scrubland.

A long bridge over an almost always dry river.

Train crossing the same bridge on the back of the new Eritrean ten Nakfa note.

The Massawa port switch engine.

Map and altitudes of the railway between Mai Hizni and Arbaroba.

Profile of Asmara-Massawa Railroad.

The Asmara-Massawa Tramway

Riding over the heights of the Eritrean valleys.

A counterweight pit remaining in the late '60s near Asmara.

A counterweight pit remaining in the late '60s near Asmara.

A counterweight pit remaining in the late '60s near Asmara.

Bases and cuts in the ridges looking west from two places above Nefasit.

Bases and cuts in the ridges looking west from two places above Nefasit.

Muscle power.

The tramway route.

A view of the Mt. Codemas span below Asmara.

Trestle towers above Nefasit.

Simple towers.

Trestle towers with dual counterweights.

Protective cover over railroad and trestle towers with dual counterweights.

A 150 horsepower Tosi diesel engine in the Nefasit station.

Cables and towers still in place above Nefasit in early 1960s.

Only bases left above Nefasit in 1969.

Looking west from above Nefasit towards Asmara in 1969.

Asmara to Keren

A detailed Italian colonial map of the road and railroad from Asmara to Keren.

Asmara to Keren by Road

A Keren mosque.

U. S. Army antennae of Stonehouse.

Leaving the city for the country.

Ad Nefas north of Asmara.

S.E.D.A.O. advertisement.

Turning the soil the old fashioned way.

A euphorbia candelabra.

The escarpment at 58 Km.


Another view of Elaboret with an Ethiopian Army column coming up the road.

Baobab tree near Keren.

Feeding the Keren Rest Center gazelle.

The Rest Center bar.

John's chameleon.

Keren's fortress from the east.

Keren's fortress from the south.

Looking north from the hotel.

The markets.

The road back to Asmara.

Looking southwest from the hotel.

A silversmith at work.

The camel market on an off day.

Asmara to Keren by Rail

Car sitting in a station on the Asmara-Keren line.

Kids gather as the littorina is about to leave Kagnew.

Looking down the track across the plateau toward Keren.

Looking towards Asmara along tracks.

A village on a mountain.

A well gathering.



A bridge along the way.

The Anseba River.

The boys stop to wave.

Taking in the shade.

A siding and station.

The departing third class train.

Ato (Mr.) Flagger.

Passing the third class train.

A man and boy waiting at a station.

A pump from antiquity still in use.

A girl waves from behind a rock.

A homestead.

An Archeological Triangle

Eritrea and Northern Ethiopia triangle area.

An Italian map of central and southern Eritrea.

Asmara to Adigrat

Volcanic dikes on the Asmara plain south of Asmara.

Coptic crosses of Lalibella similar to crosses found on the top of many churches.

Looking southeast from the road north of Decamere.

A promotional picture of an earlier Decamere, taken no later than 1952.

A monument set up by Axumite King Sembrouthes.

Preparing the fields near a Fever tree.

A wonderful Fever tree on the back of a modern Eritrean five nakfa note.

Takonda today.

Takonda columns.

Plowing in the town square?

Kaskase altar or statue base with South Arabian inscription.

Senafi amba.

Mt. Matara and valley.

Senafi's fields and town during the dry season.

Market day in Senafi.

A town south of Senafi.

A border fort.

A closer look.

Tigrean and Eritrean road markers.

The headwaters of the Mareb River.

Looking off the escarpment toward the Danakil Depression.


Panorama of the Matara excavation field.

Matara stele found below the cliff visible in the background.

Stele inscription in early Ge'ez.

Sample South Arabian ("Sabean"), Ethiopic, and Roman Characters.

Site A wall plan.

Matara Site C walls looking east.

Site A (?) wall with Mt. Matara in the background.

Matara Site D entrance.

Entrance to excavated Matara church.

Looking east from Site E over Site B to the Church site.

Looking northeast from about the same place on Site E.

Adigrat to Adi Abun

Red-brown, soil-laden water boils over a concrete causeway.

The road looked like a ribbon on its way up Mt. Alegua.

Canyon lands from the top of the pass.

Several switchbacks quickly dropped us down a steep cliff face.

The switchbacks from below.

Debra Damo from the road.

Enticho in mid-day.

Bus heading south from Gura. For Enticho?

Looking north towards Yeha from the road.

Ancient Coptic crosses on a series of stamps.

Debra Damo

Debra Damo from the road.

A house clung to the top of the cliff.

With the safety rope firmly around his waist, Micky climbs Debra Damo...

...while others watch

Enda Abuna Aragawy church on Debra Damo.

Coming down on a level part of the road.

Alumqa's Yeha

Ibexes grace a frieze on a Yeha Church.

Our first view of the temple of Alumqa in Yeha.

A closer view of the ancient South Arabian temple of Alumqa and the Coptic church.

The temple's finished interior.

Southern base of the mortarless temple wall looking east.

The Temple of Alumqa. Several views from front and back.

Onlookers at a photographic event.

The frieze inscription Bruce is photographing in the previous picture.

Two views of another piece of this Yeha frieze.

The name of the moon God, Alumqa, in Sabean.


Axum today, yesterday, and 1000 years ago!

Kaleb's early fourth century stele proclaiming his deeds with a closeup of some of the text.

Ezana's pre-Christian and Christian coins.

Axum tourist tax receipt for two of us.

The stelae of Axum.

Looking up the tallest standing stele.

Abune Teclehaimanot School in Asmara built in Axumite monkey-head style.

Looking "up" fallen stele, the largest of them all.

Altar bowls on the base of a fallen stele.

Some Axumite coins - the dates of many kings are still only guesses.

Some Ethiopian stamps with Axumite coins on them.

Mai Shum, the Queen of Sheba reservoir in February in the dry season.

The same reservoir in August after the summer rains.

Ruins of tombs of Kings Kaleb and Gebra Maskel.

Kaleb's tomb entrance.

Steps up to the floor of the ruined tomb building.

Modern buildings and an ancient pillar base.

Mug shot at an ancient palace's doorway.

Sign announcing ruins as "Sheba's Palace."

Some excavated ruins of the Queen of Sheba's palace.

A grand ceremonial stairway.

What's left of a less grand stairway.

An well preserved, excavated wall.

Another well preserved, excavated wall.

Several layers of walls.

St. Mary's of Zion.

The Treasury. "Home of the Arc of the Covenant."

Stone thrones or statue bases?

Were these bases or ceremonial seats or bases for long lost statues?

The powerful and graceful lioness of Gobedura.

The lioness again with Axum in the distance.

Beggars outside Enda Arbate Ensesa.

St. Mary of Zion through the stelae.

Adowa to Asmara

An Selassie gate house.

Another Enda Selassie gate house.

An Enda Selassie bell tower.

A Champagne pot draining outside a sua beit.

Freshly bottled Champagne.

Chicken bargaining in full swing.

South Arabian text on an Adowa tea house stone.

Adowa mountains during a rain.

Mareb River in the dry season.

Mareb River with half its rainy-season capacity.

Digging for water in a very dry Mareb River.

View from the Adi Kwala escarpment.

The Adi Kwala basalt cliffs.

Hibret's pictures of "ball of fire" destruction.

Last Trip to Massawa

A clam Massawa morning in early 1968.

Prickly Pears loaded with beles.

Dogali river bridge.

West of the road the railroad bridge crosses the almost always dry Dogali river.

Saline de Massawa's salt pans.

Massawa as seen on this old Italian map.

Our hotel - the Army TTU.

Red Sea Hotel from a Sesante magazine ad.

The Savoia Hotel glows in its night lights.

A typical back-street balcony.

Port switch engine directly across from my coffee table under the Savoia's roofed walkway.

The same switch engine from a little closer.

The engine is putting some effort.

The task is easier once the train gets moving.

Passers-by on the causeway leading from Massawa.

The Massawa-Talud causeway and Massawa city offices on Talud Island.

Russia's Sudazha in port.

Workers posing in front of their bags on train cars.

Looking down the other side of these same ships revealed a calm port.

And the Israelis were too.

A year later the Hikone Meru was in port from Japan.

Around the same time I was intrigued by this rigging and crane mess.

A golden label from a Melotti beer bottle.

Gurgussum Beach at high tide.

Gurgussum Beach at low tide.

A desert walk back from the beach.

The Massawa theater district complete with roofless movie house.

Leaving Ethiopia by Sea

Massawa in the morning.

Massawa recedes.

Home for five days.


The water was smooth as glass.

A ship passed to our west.

An unneeded anchor in a sea of glass.

We struggled through the sea.

We struggled through the sea.

We struggled through the sea.

We struggled through the sea.

Tiran Island through our rigging.

The Sinai and the Sharm El Sheikh fort at the Strait of Tiran.

Nearby Aqaba, Jordan, on the far side of the golf from Elath, Israel.

Ethiopia's Money

Ezana's Axumite coin.

Cowrie shells.

Maria Theresa Thaler.

Menelik's dollar.

Menelik's reverse with more fitting lion.

Defaced dies fill a need.

50 Centesimi, 1/10th bir, 1/10th rial.

Haile Selassie's 50 matonya.

Italy's re et imp (king and emperor) coins.

East African ten cents.

Haile Selassie's scalloped 25-cent coins.

1933 Bank of Ethiopia $2.

1933 Bank of Ethiopia $5.

1932 Bank of Ethiopia $10.

1933 Bank of Ethiopia $50.

East African Currency Board 5 shillings.

1946 State Bank of Ethiopia $5.

1961 State Bank of Ethiopia $10 with Massawa.

1961 National Bank of Ethiopia $1 with Massawa.

1961 National Bank of Ethiopia $5 with Addis Ababa Airport.
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